Understanding Estimated Average Glucose (eAG) (2023)

Type 1 Diabetes

Glucose Monitoring


Gary Gilles

Gary Gilles

Gary Gilles is a licensed clinical professional counselor (LCPC) who has written about type 1 diabetes and served as a diabetes counselor. He began writing about diabetes after his son's diagnosis as an infant.

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Updated on October 18, 2022

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Verywell Health articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and healthcare professionals. These medical reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more.

(Video) Estimated Average Glucose eAG; a1c to glucose


Do-Eun Lee, MD

Estimated average glucose (eAG) is an estimate of your average blood sugar (glucose) levels over two to three months. It indicates how well you are controlling your diabetes. Also known as an average glucose level, eAG translates your A1C blood test results from a percent into milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), the measurement used in home blood glucose monitors.

Understanding your eAG can help improve your diabetes management. Introduced by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) in 2010, eAG helps explain how A1C results relate to daily glucose readings. For example, a 6.0% A1C represents an average daily blood sugar reading of 126 mg/dL.

This article discusses estimated average glucose, how it is calculated, and what it means for your diabetes care.

Understanding Estimated Average Glucose (eAG) (2)

How eAG Is Calculated

Both A1C testing and daily glucose readings provide useful information in the management of diabetes, but they are expressed in different ways. Daily glucose meter readings are a direct measurement of the amount of glucose in blood at the time a sample is taken and is expressed as milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood—for example, 154 mg/dL.

A1C also uses a blood sample, but it looks at the percentage of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells, that has glucose attached to it (glycated hemoglobin). This reveals what an individual's average blood glucose level has been for the past two to three months. An A1C of 7% means that 7% of the total hemoglobin in a blood sample is glycated.

The eAG is determined using a straightforward mathematical formula that converts percentage of glycated hemoglobin as determined by an A1C test into the unit you're used to seeing on your glucometer: mg/dL: 28.7 X A1C – 46.7 = eAG.

Knowing your eAG can help with diabetes management by:

  • Confirming self-monitoring tests or practitioner-ordered blood tests
  • Providing an overall look at how a treatment plan is working
  • Illuminating how healthy lifestyle choices can impact blood sugar control

While A1C and eAG levels will differ depending on several factors, including age, sex, activity level, etc., the ADA recommends a target eAG of 154 mg/dL (A1C = 7%) for most adults with diabetes who are not pregnant.

A1C and eAG Equivalents At-a-Glance
A1C (percentage)eAG (mg/dL)
6.0%126 mg/dL
6.5%140 mg/dL
7.0%154 mg/dL
7.5%169 mg/dL
8.0%183 mg/dL
8.5%197 mg/dL
9.0%212 mg/dL
9.5%226 mg/dL
10.0%240 mg/dL

A1CTest Results Analyzer: Understanding Low, Optimal, and High A1C

(Video) Usefulness of Estimated Average Glucose (eAG) in patient care | Yu Chen | Endocrinology Webinar

A1C/eAG vs. Daily Monitoring

While A1C/eAG values are important for long-term diabetes management, they can’t replace daily blood glucose tests. Neither is indicative of current blood sugar levels. You need that information one or more times a day in order to adjust your insulin dose, food intake, and activity level.

The American Diabetes Association recommends that you get an A1C test twice a year if you are meeting glycemic goals and at least every three months (and as needed) if your therapy recently changed and/or you are not meeting treatment goals.

What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?

Average Glucose Reading on Meters and eAG

Most blood glucose meters used for daily testing can provide an average of all readings over the past several weeks or months. This average is not the same as the eAG. Even if you test your blood 10 times a day or more, you are only getting a reading of what your glucose is at that moment.

In fact, the average determined by your glucose meter is likely to be either lower or higher than your eAG. (If you measure sugar only postprandially, eAG will be lower than meter sugar, and if you measure sugar only preprandially, eAG may be higher than meter sugar. As a result, either direction is possible.) This is because the eAG represents an average of your glucose levels 24 hours a day and over a much longer period of time. Therefore, eAG is more accurate.

By combining your eAG number with your glucose meter’s average number, you are getting a valuable and comprehensive picture ofyouroveralldiabetes management.This will help you in making healthy goals and choices to achieve appropriate glucose control.

Guidelines for Blood Glucose Monitoring in Diabetes

A Word From Verywell

Testing your blood sugar levels via any method can trigger strong feelings. Be gentle with yourself and remind yourself that you are not a number. Make sure you have a supportive care team to help you reach your treatment plan goals, adjusting as needed without judgment.

5 Sources

Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. Dib JG. Estimated average glucose: a new term in diabetes control.Ann Saudi Med. 2010;30(1):85. doi:10.4103/0256-4947.59375

  2. Sherwani SI, Khan HA, Ekhzaimy A, et al. Significance of HbA1c test in diagnosis and prognosis of diabetic patients.Biomark Insights. 2016;11:95–104. doi:10.4137/BMI.S38440

  3. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Pro. eAG/A1C Conversion Calculator.

  4. Wisse B. Estimated average glucose (eAG). MedlinePlus.

  5. American Diabetes Association Professional Practice Committee. 6. Glycemic targets: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2022.Diabetes Care. 2022;45(Supplement_1):S83-S96. doi:10.2337/dc22-S006

Additional Reading

(Video) Understand Estimated Average Glucose to Monitor Blood Sugar Levels

By Gary Gilles
Gary Gilles is a licensed clinical professional counselor (LCPC) who has written about type 1 diabetes and served as a diabetes counselor. He began writing about diabetes after his son's diagnosis as an infant.

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(Video) Average glucose from HbA1c,Average blood sugar calculation,NGSP formula

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(Video) Estimated average Glucose (eAG) تحليل مهم جدا لازم اضيفه فى تقرير السكر لما بعمل A1c السكر التراكى


What is a good number for estimated average glucose? ›

Understanding Your eAG Readings

The normal value for eAG is between 70 mg/dl and 126 mg/dl (A1C: 4% to 6%). A person with diabetes should aim for an eAG less than 154 mg/dl (A1C < 7%) to lower the risk for diabetes complications.

What is the difference between A1C and eAG? ›

Your health care provider may report your A1C test result as eAG, or "average glucose," which directly correlates to your A1C. eAG may help you understand your A1C value because eAG is reported as the same unit (mg/dL) that you see through self-monitoring on your meter or continuous glucose monitor (CGM).

How do I read my glucose results? ›

  1. A normal blood glucose level is lower than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L).
  2. A blood glucose level between 140 and 199 mg/dL (7.8 and 11 mmol/L) is considered impaired glucose tolerance, or prediabetes. ...
  3. A blood glucose level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher may indicate diabetes.
Mar 24, 2022

What is my A1C If my average blood sugar is 97? ›

Use this chart to view A1c values and comparable blood glucose values:
A1cEstimated Average Glucose mg/dL
4 more rows

What is my A1C If my average blood sugar is 140? ›

What are dangerous levels?
A1C valueeAG value
5.6% or below117 mg/dl or below
6.5%140 mg/dl
7% or less154 mg/dl or less
8% or less183 mg/dl or less
Oct 29, 2021

How do I convert my eAG to A1C? ›

The relationship between A1C and eAG is described by the formula 28.7 X A1C – 46.7 = eAG.


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