The combustion of cellulose under conditions of rapid heating (2022)

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Combustion and Flame

Volume 49, Issues 1–3,

January 1983

, Pages 249-254

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Abstract

Studies were made of the combustion of cellulose using high heating rates and at temperatures up to 823K with varying concentrations of oxygen in the atmosphere. Under these conditions, which may be relevant to those which exist during cigarette smoking, the gaseous products are the same as those formed in the absence of oxygen and the carbon oxides are again the major components. If chemical control is assumed, the order of reaction in cellulose for the formation of each product gradually decreases with increasing oxygen concentration, tending towards a value of unity. Although the activation parameters (activation energy and preexponential factor) decrease when oxygen is introduced, these values are independent of oxygen concentration between 5 and 21 vol%.

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(Video) Cellulose: From Trees to Explosives

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• Cited by (10)

• Flame structure and flame spread rate over a solid fuel in partially premixed atmospheres

2011, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute

We have investigated the downward flame spread over a thin solid fuel. Hydrogen, methane, or propane, included in the gaseous product of pyrolysis reaction, is added in the ambient air. The fuel concentration is kept below the lean flammability limit to observe the partially premixing effect. Both experimental and numerical studies have been conducted. Results show that, in partially premixed atmospheres, both blue flame and luminous flame regions are enlarged, and the flame spread rate is increased. Based on the flame index, a so-called triple flame is observed. The heat release rate ahead of the original diffusion flame is increased by adding the fuel, and its profile is moved upstream. Here, we focus on the heat input by adding the fuel in the opposed air, which could be a direct factor to intensify the combustion reaction. The dependence of the flame spread rate on the heat input is almost the same for methane and propane/air mixtures, but larger effect is observed for hydrogen/air mixture. Since the deficient reactant in lean mixture is fuel, the larger effect of hydrogen could be explained based on the Lewis number consideration. That is, the combustion is surely intensified for all cases, but this effect is larger for lean hydrogen/air mixture (Le<1), because more fuel diffuses toward the lean premixed flame ahead of the original diffusion flame. Resultantly, the pyrolysis reaction is promoted to support the higher flame spread rate.

• Combustion characteristics of waste material containing high moisture

2001, Fuel

In this paper, the effect of water content on combustion characteristics of watery waste material, such as kitchen garbage, was studied experimentally. In order to clarify the water content quantitatively, a permeable balsa wood was chosen as the sample material. Combustion tests of the small balsa pieces (0.1–0.5g) containing water up to 70wt% were conducted in a thermogravimetric furnace. Mass reduction during pre-heating, volatile matter combustion and char combustion were measured with a microbalance. Also, the variations of flame temperature and center temperature of the test piece during the combustion process were measured by means of R- and K-type thermocouples, respectively. In the case of the combustion of balsa with high water-content, it was found that the ignition started before the water was removed completely, namely the simultaneous vaporization of the remaining water and devolatilization of volatiles occurred during volatile matter combustion. The ignition delay and the retention time of volatile matter combustion increased with increasing water content. The flame temperature decreased when the water content of wet balsa exceeded 50wt%. The combustion rate of the volatile matter was drastically reduced in proportion to the water content. On the other hand, the char combustion rate increased slightly with increasing water content since part of the char is burned during the long volatile matter combustion. It was found from this study that excess moisture remarkably affected the volatile matter combustion with a flame.

• Combustion properties of pure and fire-retarded cellulose

1991, Combustion and Flame

Measurement are presented for the fuel-related properties of pure and fire-retarded cellulose used in diffusion flame calculations. The items measured are (1) heat of combustion of the volatile products of cellulose pyrolysis, (2) heat of gasification, (3) fuel and inert gas fractions in the pyrolysate and (4) stoichiometric ratio of the fuel volatiles. Cellulose samples were subjected to a radiant heat flux in a special apparatus designed for this purpose, and the pyrolysate was analyzed using a gas chromatograph. Heats of combustion of cellulose and of the char produced by pyrolysis were measured by a bomb calorimeter. Results are given for pure cellulose and for cellulose that has been fire retarded by up to 3 wt.% sodium hydroxide. For heat fluxes simulating those in diffusion flames, the char yield is found to increase from 9 wt.% percent for pure cellulose to 30 wt.% for retarded cellulose. The effect of retardant addition is to decrease the heat of combustion per unit mass of (total) volatiles, but to increase the heat of combustion per unit mass of combustible volatiles. The heat of gasification (defined as the energy input required to generate a unit mass of volatiles) is determined from measurements of mass loss, surface temperature, and surface emissivity. For pure cellulose, the mass loss rate and surface temperature increase for higher applied heat fluxes while the heat of gasification decreases. At a fixed heat flux, retardant addition increases both the mass loss rate and surface temperature, which results in a decrease in the heat of gasification. Analysis of the volatiles shows that retardant addition increases the fraction of inert gases (carbon dioxide and water) in the pyrolysate, which reduces the fuel fraction from 69 wt.% for pure cellulose to 35 wt.% for retarded cellulose. The corresponding change in stoichiometric $\text{oxygen}\text{fuel}$ ratio is from 1.6 for pure cellulose to a maximum value of 2.3 for retarded cellulose.

• Pesistent free radicals in woodsmoke: An ESR spin trapping study

1989, Free Radical Biology and Medicine

Free radicals are detected in the gas-phase smoke resulting from the combustion of wood using the electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping method. The materials were pyrolyzed by rapid heating in a quartz tube in a flowing air stream. The filtered smoke was bubbled into a dodecane solution of α-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone, and the resulting nitroxide radicals were detected by ESR. The radicals spin trapped from woodsmoke are compared to those we have spin trapped from tobacco smoke; the smoke from both yellow pin and oak produce more intense ESR spectra than does tobacco smoke per unit mass burned under the conditions of these experiments. When woodsmoke is bubbled through pure dodecane and the resulting woodsmoke/dodecane solution is held for a delay time before the PBN is added, radicals are detected even after the woodsmoke/dodecane solution is aged for more than 20 min. Similar experiments wiht tobacco smoke show that racidals no longer are trapped even after much shorter delay times from tobacco smoke/dodecane solutions.

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• Lees' Loss Prevention in the Process Industries: Hazard Identification, Assessment And Control: Fourth Edition

2012, Lees' Loss Prevention in the Process Industries: Hazard Identification, Assessment and Control: Fourth Edition

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Copyright © 1983 Published by Elsevier Inc.

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FAQs

At what temperature does cellulose combust? ›

The results showed that the identified ignition temperatures of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are 410 °C, 370 °C and 405 °C, respectively.

Does cellulose burn easily? ›

Cellulose fibres, like cotton, linen and viscose, easily catch fire, and the flames spread rapidly if the textile has not been impregnated with a flame retardant. The thinner the fabric, the more easily it burns. Thin fabrics made from cellulose fibres can actually be compared to paper, which is also cellulose-based.

What happens when you burn cellulose? ›

The decomposition of cellulose leads to char, tar and volatile products formation. At temperatures beyond 320°C, the decomposition rate of lignin intensifies. At this point of wood combustion, all the gaseous products evaporate. The gas mixes with air to either cool off and form smoke, or catch fire to burn in flames.

Is cellulose Fibre flammable? ›

It is known known that cellulosic fibers, being aliphatic in nature, decompose to produce flammable volatiles (primarily levoglucosan) and a very small amount of residue [20].

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