Krishna July 1, 2019 STRUCTURE 8 Comments
Wall is a structural element which divides the space (room) into two spaces (rooms) and also provides safety and shelter. Generally, the walls are differentiated as a two types outer-walls and inner-walls. Outer-walls gives an enclosure to the house for shelter and inner-walls helps to partition the enclosure into the required number of rooms. Inner walls are also called as Partition walls or Interior Walls and Outer walls are also called as Exterior walls.
In the technical point of view the walls are divided into the following types:
- Different Types of Walls:-
- 1.Load Bearing Wall :
- 2. Non-load Bearing wall or Drop Wall:
- 3. Shear wall:
- 4. Retaining Wall:
- 5. Brick masonry wall:
- 6. Course Rubble Stone masonry wall:
- 7. Random rubble stone masonry wall:
- 8. Core wall:
- 9. Precast wall:
- 10. Parapet wall:
- 11. Curtain wall:
- 12. Boundary Wall or Compound wall:
1.Load Bearing Wall :
As the name itselfsuggests that, the whole building structure is rested on walls instead of columns. In general, the loads from slab transfers to the beams, from beams to the columns and then spread to the foundation.
From the above image, you can identify that the structure has beams and slabs but not columns. In simple words, whetherits exterior or interior walls, the wall which is bearing the whole weight of the structure, includingself-weight of structural elements is called Load bearing wall. Strip foundation is adopted for the load-bearing type of wall.
2. Non-load Bearing wall or Drop Wall:
This type of wall doesn’t support floor or roof loads above them which means it wont carry any of the weight of the structure above it. Partition walls inside the building are the best example of it, where these are constructed only to divide the rooms and these walls don’tpossess any structural integrity. The non-load bearing wall can be removed or shortened without affecting the building structure.
Non-Load bearing walls are also called as Drop wall or Filling wall.
The thickness of Non Load bearing wall generally lies in between 100mm to 125mm.
3. Shear wall:
Shear wall is the wall which is constructed around the lift pit, Water sump or Staircase to retain the soil. Any shear wall bears two pressures on it either it may be wind pressure and soil pressure or wind pressure or water pressure . Shear wall is adopted to resist these forces. These walls areused to carry the lateral force exerted on the structure due to wind, earthquake or any other lateral load.
To make it clear, Let us take an example of the overhead water tank. Overhead tank is exposed to the wind as it is constructed on heights which share Wind pressure on it. The water tank has water in it which creates water pressure inside the tank. Shear wall resists these forces without any deflection. We will explain more about shear wall soon in a separate post.
4. Retaining Wall:
The wall which is built to maintain the unequal level of the ground on its two faces is called a Retaining wall. The wall which is constructed around the plot below ground level to retain the soil at one end and land sliding after the earthwork on site are called retaining wall. Retaining wall can be made of RCC or CRS.
Retaining walls are further divided into the following types:
- Gravity retaining wall
- Reinforced Concrete retaining wall
- Brick masonry retaining wall
- Anchored earth walls
- Stone made Retaining wall
5. Brick masonry wall:
The wall which is constructed with the help of bricks is called Brick masonry wall. Masonry is used to join the bricks in the wall. The thickness of the brick wall could be 20cm or 10cm
- The 20cm wall is adopted for outer walls.
- The 10cm wall is adopted for inner walls.
Remember, the length of the brick wall in a single stretch should not exceed more than 4m. If it exceeds, a column must be constructed with RCC.
You can also read more about how to do brickwork calculation for a a building here.
6. Course Rubble Stone masonry wall:
The wall which is constructed with regular size of stones which are well finished & dressed is called Course Rubble Stone masonry wall. This type of wall is generally adopted for abutments of bridges, compound walls or boundary walls.
7. Random rubble stone masonry wall:
The wall which is constructed with the irregular size of stones is called Random rubble masonry wall. This type of wall consumes more masonry than Course rubble stone wall.
8. Core wall:
Core wall is constructed from the foundation and it raised upto the height of the building. In this type of wall, the wall itself acts as a column. Corewall is built to carry the lateral force exerted on the structure due to wind, earthquake or any other lateral load.
Core walls are a combination of shear walls. They are organized and arranged like a core and installed at the geometric centre of the building to void the torsion effect.
9. Precast wall:
As the name itself proving that it is a ready-made wall where the wall is cast in the factory and bought to site to install it. Yes, the precast wall is possible in the current world. Many companies brought this to market. You need to specify the length and height of the wall. The wall is cast and transported to the site. This type of wall is preferred where there is limited to space to work and where there is less chance of labour. The best part of Precast walls is companies themselves provide skilled labour to install the walls at your site.
10. Parapet wall:
The wall which is constructed on the top floor of the building to prevent the falling in anything from the roof. The height of the parapet wall is 3ft.
11. Curtain wall:
The wall which is constructed with glass, aluminium or with a steel frame is called a Curtain wall. This type of walls is generally adopted in offices, Hospitals and other public buildings.
12. Boundary Wall or Compound wall:
The wall which is constructed all around the building to show the limits of the plot is called a boundary wall.
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What are the types of wall in building construction? ›
Walls may be divided into two types:
a Load-bearing walls which support loads from floors and roof in addition to their own weight and which resist side pressure from wind and, in some cases, from stored material or objects within the building, b non-load-bearing walls which carry no floor or roof loads.
Generally, the walls are differentiated as a two types outer-walls and inner-walls. Outer-walls gives an enclosure to the house for shelter and inner-walls helps to partition the enclosure into the required number of rooms.What are the 5 construction types? ›
- Heavy timber.
a wall that divides two buildings that are joined together, and belongs to both of them.What are the five uses of walls? ›
The purposes of walls in buildings are to support roofs, floors and ceilings; to enclose a space as part of the building envelope along with a roof to give buildings form; and to provide shelter and security. In addition, the wall may house various types of utilities such as electrical wiring or plumbing.What are the 6 functions of walls? ›
- Weather and ground moisture resistance.
- Fire safety.
- Resistance to heat passage.
- Sound resistance.
In general, there are two main categories of frame structures, namely the braced frame structure and rigid frame structure. These are common in various construction project management.What are concrete walls called? ›
Block walls are structures containing standard concrete blocks that can take on various shapes and sizes.What is the best type of wall? ›
This is the most commonly used wall material. It is strong, durable, and has excellent resistance to wind and fire. Precast concrete, which is formed off-site, can be used for making sculptural designs on your building. Concrete is suitable for building exterior walls in places prone to hurricanes.
They are typically constructed from brick or blockwork, or framed, sometimes referred to as stud walls. Stud walls can be constructed from timber, steel or aluminium frames clad with boarding such as plasterboard, timber, metal or fibreboard. They may also be glazed. For more information, see Partition walls.
What are walls in structure? ›
A wall is a structure and a surface that defines an area; carries a load; provides security, shelter, or soundproofing; or, is decorative. There are many kinds of walls, including: Walls in buildings that form a fundamental part of the superstructure or separate interior rooms, sometimes for fire safety.What are the four basic types of retaining wall? ›
- Gravity retaining walls.
- Cantilever retaining walls.
- Embedded retaining walls.
- Reinforced soil retaining walls.